The Prague Statement on A Need for Action to Develop Water Resources Management Systems

1 July 2015

The Prague Statement
on
A Need for Action to Develop Water Resources Management Systems by the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS)

 26 June 2015

Recognising the human right on access to safe water and protection from water hazards of every individual as enshrined in international law,

Noting with satisfaction the current and past efforts made by governments, agencies and community groups to provide access to safe water, to protect the environment and to mitigate water hazards,

Acknowledging that there is a global water crisis with critical needs for immediate action,

We, the delegates to the conference of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences in Prague, June 20-26, 2015 are deeply concerned by the water problems humanity is experiencing with increasing frequency and severity and express the following concerns and recommendations.

The hydrosphere is experiencing a global water crisis caused by uneven freshwater availability in space and time, overexploitation, environmental degradation and the more frequent occurrence of floods and droughts. In fact, 842,000 people die annually from inadequate water supply and the annual economical damage induced by floods is nearly 14 billion US dollars (average 1980-2014). This crisis is fuelled by often fragmented water management and by economic problems, especially in water-scarce regions. Low efficiency of water resources management systems, in terms of high water losses and energy consumption, is no longer sustainable and may cause irreversible damage to our societies if not promptly mitigated. At the same time water demand is ever increasing in many parts of the world, due to population growth, economic development and changing lifestyles, exacerbating the risk of unsafe water supply.

Devastating floods around the world belong to the largest disasters in terms of economic loss and financial damage. These floods are expected to increase further as a result of land use change (such as the intensification of agricultural management and surface sealing due to urbanisation), modifications of the river system (such as river training and harnessing) and more intense precipitation extremes related to climate change. More importantly, the number of people and the economic value of assets in flood prone areas have increased throughout the world, as a result of urbanisation and encroachment of floodplains, exposing an increasing number of people to floods. These factors all contribute to increased flood risk to both humans and their economic goods.

Water resources management systems are the artefacts put in place to make freshwater available to people and to protect them from water threats. Their correct functioning is essential for people’s wellbeing. Immediate action is therefore needed to evolve water resources management systems in order to address the present challenges of the global water crisis.

A call for immediate actions of governments

We call upon all local, regional and national governments and urge them to develop effective solutions to the water crisis by developing water resources management systems:

  • In order to address problems of freshwater availability and supply, the full spectrum of technical, organisational, economic, political, legal and social approaches should be considered, and implemented as needed.
  • In order to address flood risks, a holistic approach of integrated flood risk management should be adopted that considers all phases of the disaster cycle – mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
  • In all instances, a sustainable approach should be adopted ensuring that long-term issues are addressed. A comprehensive monitoring of the status of water resources is therefore needed to be able to adapt to changes in a flexible and ecologically sustainable way.
  • Instruments of managing water resources management systems should be tailored to the local hydrological, legal and societal situations to adapt to the dramatic global changes in the environment and society.
  • Cooperation of all stakeholders is needed based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policy-makers at all levels, in particular at the river basin scale.
  • Water resources management systems are a cultural heritage of humanity, yet the infrastructure to manage them efficiently and effectively is ageing and the requirements are changing. A balanced approach of preservation and adaptation is needed to meet the needs of a changing world.
  • The evolution of water resources management systems requires a sound scientific basis. Advice from the scientific community should therefore play an essential role in planning their future configuration and management.A call for immediate actions of the international scientific communityWe also call upon members of the international scientific community and urge them to develop practical and implementable methods and techniques to support adaptation of water resources management systems to the current and future challenges.
  • Adaptation of water resources management systems should build on observed evidence and rigorous system understanding. An improved understanding of hydrological processes is therefore needed, in particular at the local scale, and put into the context of broader river basin and groundwater issues.
  • An interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach is required to understand the multiple triggers of the water emergencies, and elaborate visions and solutions that are viable technically, environmentally and socially.
  • Assessment of the water future and management options is often carried out through scenario analyses. While useful for a set of questions, they do not usually account for dynamic feedbacks. Novel methods of socio-hydrology are needed that represent the long term feedbacks between hydrology and society in an explicit way.
  • The value of monitoring of water resources cannot be overestimated, particularly during times of change. Novel, efficient and accurate monitoring systems are needed in support of research and management practice.
  • Approaches to adaptive management are needed that identify priority targets and lead to feasible solutions. Given the multiple uncertainties, robust vulnerability-based approaches should be particularly developed that are people-centred and aim at reducing their vulnerability and enhancing their resilience, and give favourable outcomes under a broad spectrum of possible futures.A call for immediate actions of research funding agenciesFinally, we call upon the research funding agencies at both national and international levels and urge them to provide funding that is commensurate with the challenges of the global water crisis.
    • Enhanced funding is needed to improve the understanding of hydrological processes at all scales. Fundamental research is equally important as applied research, and is equally likely to become societally relevant, albeit over longer time scales.
    • Funding is needed to address the big questions of the water future through both small and large research groups. Interdisciplinary research within projects and across projects is essential to make

progress in understanding and developing environmentally sustainable water resources management systems.

  • Given the paramount role of adaptive management, long term funding is essential, in particular for Hydrological Observatories that unravel the long term feedbacks between water-related processes.
  • Networking between scientists around the world is already receiving substantial funding. Mobility and international collaboration should continue to be funded at a high level.
  • The support of young water scientists through structured doctoral programmes and other initiatives should be strengthened. The young generation will be the managers of the water resources management systems of the future, so investing in their education will pay back multiple times.Adopted by acclamation, in the city of Prague, Czech Republic, on this 26th day of June 2015.

 

 

Eutrophication as big an issue in the sea as in freshwater

31 October 2014

Public views on Baltic eutrophication have important policy implications

Eutrophication, caused by nutrient release from human activities such as agriculture, industry and sewage disposal, is the most serious environmental problem faced by the Baltic Sea. A number of initiatives aim to reduce the flow of nutrients – particularly nitrogen and phosphorus – into the Baltic Sea. The most recent and ambitious of these is the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), which agreed on nutrient reduction targets for each of the nine Baltic coastal countries.

In addition to the BSAP, EU Member States bordering the Baltic Sea also have a legal responsibility to achieve ‘Good Ecological Status’ in coastal waters under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and ‘Good Environmental Status’ in marine waters under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). An important part of implementing these directives is involving the public, and other stakeholders, in management decisions. Read more »

South Africa’s Water Minister proposes a bottom-up solution

15 September 2014

South Africa has a water crisis which, to all intents and purposes, is not receiving the attention that it should.  Nonetheless, the newly-elected Minister of Water and Sanitation (in the not so old days, Water Affairs), Nomvula Mokonyane, has chosen to throw in her lot with this country’s embattled President – generating the headline “Use buttocks to defend Zuma“.

Surely, surely, we deserve better than this?  This particular ministry does not have the time for anything other than ‘water affairs’ – unless the President’s ‘fire pool’ now needs solar heating?  Or is this some form of ‘payback’ for the appointment?  Let me be quite clear here: it’s not about what the Minister said or how idiomatic the expression might be – it’s about sycophantic politicking by the head of what should be one of the most important departments in this country – yet just on a year ago was rated the second worst performing of all South African government departments.  In this same week the Institute of Security Studies has concluded what many already know, namely “South Africa is facing a potential water crisis and the current policies of the newly named Department of Water and Sanitation are not sufficient to address this problem”. 

As such, the Minister has more important things to be concerned about – or so one would think…

 

 

USA House of Representatives approves Harmful Algal Blooms Act

12 June 2014

Algal blooms impact on marine and freshwater resources worldwide (Photo: Bill Harding)

Algal blooms impact on marine and freshwater resources worldwide (Photo: Bill Harding)

Good news for research and management of noxious algae in the United States!  This week the US House of Representatives passed Bill S. 1254, which “reauthorizes the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Act.  Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur when colonies of algae grow out of control while producing toxic or harmful effects on people, fish, shellfish, marine mammals, and birds. The bill maintains and enhances an interagency program led by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which will be responsible for promoting a national strategy to help communities understand, predict, control and mitigate freshwater and marine HAB and hypoxia events; enhancing, coordinating, and assessing the activities of existing HABs and hypoxia programs; providing for development of a comprehensive research plan and action strategy, including a regional approach to understanding and responding to HAB events; and requiring an assessment and plan for Great Lakes HABs and hypoxia”. Read more »

Can agriculture and water resources exist in harmony in a densely-populated world?

4 June 2014

A Space for Water in the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)

River Great Ouse in arable farmland. © Copyright Hugh Venables and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence

River Great Ouse in arable farmland. © Copyright Hugh Venables and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence

A recent European report suggests that attempts to promote freshwater ecosystem conservation in European agricultural policy have so far proved largely unsuccessful.  The report, published in May 2014 by the European Court of Auditors (pdf), describes how priorities for freshwater ecosystem conservation outlined in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) have yet to be successfully integrated into the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Read more »

Can an ecosystem service approach strengthen river conservation?

2 May 2014

River Ribble, Lancashire. Image RSJ

River Ribble, Lancashire. Image RSJ

Worldwide efforts to conserve river ecosystems are failing, and new approaches for stronger conservation planning are required.  This is the underlying context of a new editorial ‘Rebalancing the philosophy of river conservation’ by Mars [Managing Aquatic Ecosystems and Water Resources under Multiple Stress] scientist Steve Ormerod in Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems.  Ormerod suggests that the ecosystem service approach can offer a valuable addition to current river conservation strategies, potentially providing convincing new arguments to help halt freshwater biodiversity loss. Read more »

LIVING WITH EUTROPHICATION: A LUXURY SOUTH AFRICA CANNOT AFFORD

6 April 2014

Unimpacted rivers and streams are increasingly threatened by the wastes of a growing population (Photo: Bill Harding)

Unimpacted rivers and streams are increasingly threatened by the wastes of a growing population (Photo: Bill Harding)

Uncontrolled enrichment of our water resources with wastewater and other pollutants is a big problem that is receiving very little attention.  This article examines some of the associated issues and the dangers of considering ‘living with the problem’, i.e. accepting it as a necessary evil rather than taking the obvious step of dealing with it.  The “Do Nothing” option, more commonly associated with protecting and conserving the environment, may seem attractive here – based on the argument that, because so much infrastructure is broken already, there is not enough money to do anything more than patch up what we have.

(This article was prepared by Bill Harding and Jeff Thornton of International Environmental Management Services Ltd., a US-registered, not-for-profit skills transfer company, specializing in water resource management.  Both are limnologists with an in-depth understanding of eutrophication and reservoir management in South Africa). Read more »

US Bill to tackle algal blooms has very low chance of being enacted

24 February 2014

Paint-like patterns formed by blue-green algae (Photo: Bill Harding)

Paint-like patterns formed by blue-green algae (Photo: Bill Harding)

US Senate Bill S1254, introduced on June 27th, 2013, was passed in the Senate on 12 February 2014 and now goes to the House of Representatives for enactment consideration.  The chances of this happening are considered to be low, in fact just 14%.  Apparently only 23% of bills that passed committee in 2011-2013 were enacted.

The Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Amendments Act would expand a federal task force, require it to create a program to study the problem and an action plan to address it. The task force also would study the causes of hypoxia, or the depletion of oxygen in water. One cause of hypoxia is mass die-off of blue-green algae [Source]. Read more »

Is IWRM (Integrated Water Resources Management) sometimes a barrier to effective water resource management?

23 February 2014

Photo: Bill Harding

Photo: Bill Harding

The concept of Integrated Water Resource Management, nowadays commonly known by its acronym IWRM, has been around for a very long time.  Nowadays the IWRM paradigm, if we can call it that, dominates within political and institutional decision making processes.  But has this been healthy?  Has, in fact, the integration of specialisations across all water resource components been comprehensive enough to derive a truly holistic and, moreover pragmatic, IWRM protocol?  From my own experience I do not believe that this is the case.  In a paper just published in the International Journal of Water Resources Management, authors Giordano and Shah, present a cogent argument that echoes some of my concerns.

Their abstract reads as follows (you download the whole paper if you so wish): Read more »

Mini water wars: People who make decisions are often not the ones affected by water quality problems

19 January 2014

This arch on the wall of Hartbeespoort Dam admonishes Sine aqua arida ac misera agri cultura (Without water agriculture is withered and wretched). People as well! (Photo: Bill Harding)

This arch on the wall of Hartbeespoort Dam admonishes Sine aqua arida ac misera agri cultura (Without water agriculture is withered and wretched). People as well! (Photo: Bill Harding)

Many have speculated that future conflicts will be fought over water availability – for example as argued by Marq de Villiers in his book aptly titled “Water Wars: Is the World’s Water Running Out?” (Phoenix Press 1999).  Similar arguments are evident in Sandra Postel’s “Pillar of Sand: Can the Irrigation Miracle Last” (WorldWatch, 1999) or in Patrick Bond’s “Unsustainable South Africa: Environment, Development and Social Protest” (Merlin, 2002).  In the latter Bond correctly notes that “Water management offers [the] South African government and society possibly the most serious contemporary challenge“.  In 1997 the UN Comprehensive Assessment of Freshwater Resources concluded that “The world faces a worsening series of local and regional water quantity and quality [my emphasis] problems.  Water resource constraints and water degradation are weakening one of the resources bases  on which human society is built“.  All of these texts were published more than a decade ago, and similar postulates pre-date them.

Read more »